On the island, there is a volcanic mountain range with the highest peak of Mount Agung at an altitude of 3142 meters above sea level, and to the south of the island, there are fertile lowlands and highlands.
A significant part of the island is covered by tropical forests. The humid equatorial climate has an average annual temperature of 25-27°C and average annual rainfall of 1400-1700 mm. The dry season occurs in August and September.
On artificially irrigated agricultural land, 25% of the island, rice, coffee, cocoa, pepper, vanilla, clove, coconut palm, sugarcane, and fruit trees are grown. Cattle and pig farming also occur.
Bali is famous worldwide for its original, distinctive folklore, architecture, sculpture, painting, as well as music, and dance. Balinese art, influenced by Hindu art, is characterized by rich plants and fantastic ornamentation. Balinese goldsmithing and smithing are also well-known. Music is characterized by the use of the gamelan instrument. The original shadow puppet theater wayang is also known.
The mountains are the source of fresh water. Rivers and lakes originate here, which is why the island owes its fertility to them. Three mighty volcanoes: Agung, Batur, and Batukaru, define the spiritual, cultural, and geographical face of the island. Mount Agung, 3142 meters above sea level, is considered by the local population to be the abode of the gods. According to Balinese beliefs, it is the gods who can cause a volcano to erupt to punish the inhabitants for lack of respect or other offenses. On the other hand, Balinese people believe that the fertile and fertile soils that result from these catastrophes, giving abundant crops, are also a gift from the gods.
From the earliest times, Bali remained under neighboring Java’s political and cultural domination. It was part of successive kingdoms centered on Java. Since 1343, it has been within the boundaries of the most powerful of them, the Majapahit kingdom. In the sixteenth century, Bali gained political independence, and after the conquest of Java by Muslims (late sixteenth century) it became the center of a rich, original Indonesian culture, influenced by southern Indian art, characterized by rich ornamentation, with figurative, plant, and fantastic motifs, present in painting on fabrics, sculpture in stone and wood, batik, in temples, developed goldsmithing and smithing, and the so-called shadow theater (wayang).
During the colonial period, it remained independent for a long time, and only in 1839 did the Dutch begin to take control of the island. Some Balinese kingdoms began to make secret agreements with the colonizers. When in the early 20th century, fighting broke out between Balinese regencies, the Dutch entered. In 1906, VOC company troops, assisted by mercenaries from the Moluccas, attacked from the Sanur side. Balinese royal families knew they had no chance against the superior force of the Dutch East India Company. They preferred to commit collective suicide rather than surrender. In 1908, similar events took place in Klungkung. From that moment on, the Dutch took administrative control of the island.